Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates and Minerals

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Protein is the big nutrient — the primary element in the growth and repair of body tissue (such as collagen fibres, which are one of the principal components of skin, muscle, bones and cartilage, among a host of other body parts). For this reason, children who are still growing need more protein per kilogram of body weight than adults. Anyone with an infectious disease, though, will also need increased protein, as will someone on an extreme diet, since the body may burn through accumulated fat and carbohydrate reserves and begin to pillage protein resources.
The problem with that is that proteins supply some 20 amino acids, about half of which are needed for normal growth and tissue renewal, and if energy - yielding nutrients are in short supply, amino acids may be used as energy sources. This can lead to what's known as protein-calorie malnutrition, a condition apparent in the stunted growth of Third World children, who may subsist almost entirely on starchy foodstuffs derived from cereal and root staples.
Foods high in protein — most meats, fish, eggs, dairy products — are the expensive foods of the comparatively rich. Surprisingly, though, most human diets around the world only vary from about 10 to 15 per cent protein content. The big difference is in the quantity of fats and carbohydrates — as high as 90 per cent carbohydrates in poor diets and as low as 40 per cent in better diets. The remainder, if any, of the diet is made up of fats, perhaps as much as 45 per cent among wealthy eaters.

Fats and carbohydrates, though low in amino acids, are our best energy source. Fats, such as oils and especially butter, have an extremely high energy content (that is, calories) but consumed in excess they can build up as hard deposits known as plaque in the arteries, as in artherosclerosis, one of the major causes of heart attacks. Because most fats are scarce in vitamins, they're called empty calories: They've generally been considered the chief contributor to body fat, an excess of which can be a real problem for people with osteoarthritis, though recent studies have questioned — with some justification — whether in fact fats are the real culprits in excess weight.
The other main source of body energy is the carbohydrate family — sugars and starches. Most of them are loaded with energy but contain relatively little protein. Thus, a high carbohydrate diet will be short on growth potential and leave the body ill-equipped to fight infections. Some starchy foods, such as potatoes, do have protein content (though less than whole-grain cereals) and vitamins, especially C and A. Before the terrible Potato Famine in 19th-century Ireland and Scotland, many crofters survived on little else.

Foods also contain a wide array of minerals useful to normal metabolic processes. You may have two or three pounds of calcium in your body — mostly in the skeletal system — as well as magnesium, which shares some of calcium's functions. Iron, an essential component of hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in muscles, is of special importance to menstruating, pregnant or lactating women; it's aided in its work by copper, while cobalt helps form red blood cells. The body is a veritable mineshaft of other exotic minerals, such as zinc, manganese, selenium and molybdenum, whose functions are varied but sometimes interrelated; all are important and require the appropriate food sources.

Excerpts from - http://www.dietitians.ca.

Effects of Cooking

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The food we prepare contains a mix of nutrients and minerals and the effects of cooking on these are as below



Proteins
Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk and egg white, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. These may also be a source of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become de-natured and change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable - meat becomes cooked. In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites. The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component of much cake cookery, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue.

Liquids
Cooking often involves water which is often present as other liquids, both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves. Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and blanching. Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavour and ingredients - this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making.



Fat
Fats and oils come from both animal and plant sources. In cooking, fats provide tastes and textures. When used as the principal cooking medium (rather than water), they also allow the cook access to a wide range of cooking temperatures. Common oil-cooking techniques include sauteing, stir-frying, and deep-frying. Commonly used fats and oils include butter, olive oil, sunflower oil, lard, beef fat (both dripping and tallow), rapeseed oil or Canola, and peanut oil. The inclusion of fats tends to add flavour to cooked food, even though the taste of the oil on its own is often unpleasant. This fact has encouraged the popularity of high fat foods, many of which are classified as junk food.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates used in cooking include simple sugars such as glucose (from table sugar) and fructose(from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, potato. The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex.
Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into more simple sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups. If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelisation starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel. Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique.
An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked. In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water. These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces. This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat

Improvements you can find!!!

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In my previous post I had mentioned about updating people on various cuisines of the world, their popular dishes and the recipes with ingredients needed and cooking instructions for that recipe
It suddenly struck me that understaning how to cook and what ingredients to use would not be enough. I thought, to create wonderful dishes for our friends and family to consume we need to have greater in depth knowledge about
- The concepts of cooking,
- Dietery requirements of people,
- The food pyramid and its importance,
- The ingredients required, regionwise
- The cooking utensils you would require

Although the basic need of the blog would be fulfilled we would have these additional information for the benefit of all humanity!!! We would have a list to help cover the essentials involved in cooking, certain tips and tricks to create masterpieces in cooking.
You can always choose to click on the above links to get that cuisine's popular dishes and recipes.
Please leave a comment to help improve the blog and to contibute recipes you may know!!

Mediterranean Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

English Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

American Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Lebanese Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Korean Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Japanese Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

French Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Mexican Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Italian Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Chinese Cuisine

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COMING SOON WITH THE POPULAR DISHES AND THEIR RECIPES

Punjab and Haryanan Cuisine

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Punjabi cuisine (from the Punjab region of Northern India and Eastern Pakistan). Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. It is widely popular however there is some ignorance in Western Cultures that Punjabi is cuisine is completely curry based. The level of spices can vary from minimal to very prevalent. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of clarified butter, known locally as desi ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon wheat masalas (spice) flavourings. Though wheat varieties form their staple food, Punjabis do cook rice on special occasions. During winter a delicacy, Roh Di Kheer, is cooked using rice. Rice is cooked for a long time in sugar cane juice.
Within the state itself, there are different preferences. People in the area of Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and milk products. In fact, the area is well known for quality of its milk products. There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab, such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag).
The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-veg dishes.


Tandoori Cuisine

Jammu and Kashmir Cuisine

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The state of Jammu and Kashmir features as a top most state in the map of India. This state is considered as a paradise for some inspite of the fact that this state is swarmed with anti indian terrorists. The state is not just a paradise for the tourists for its scenic beauty but a paradise also for food lovers. The state offers a variety of exotic recipes bearing a distinct seal of the state. Secret behind the mind-blowing cuisine of the state lies in the books of history which speaks of the invasion of Kashmir by Timur in the 15 th century AD. This resulted in the migration of hundreds of skilled cooks from Samarkand to cater to the royal tongue.


The descendants of these cooks gifted the state the unsurpassable tradition of Wazwan, the delectable aromatic banquet of Kashmir. Wazwan consists of 36 course meal, essentially, meat based prepared by wazas (cooks) under the supervision of Vasta Waza, the master chef. Kashmir excels in the preparation of non-vegetarian cuisine and more so in the meat based dishes with lamb being preferred over others. People of the state are liberal in the use of spices, condiments and curd. The medium of cooking is chiefly mustard oil. Another chararacteristic of Kashmir cuisine is the liberal dose of the expensive saffron or kesar, which is produced in the state. Rice forms the staple food of Kashmir. Three different styles of cooking prevail in the state as Kashmiri Pandits, Muslims and Rajput follow their own traditions and proscriptions in cooking. Kashmiri Pandits refrain from the use of onions and garlic, while Muslims avoid the use of asafoetida (hing) and curds. Variations in recipes can also be observed in the different regions of the state. Cooking pattern as seen in Ladakh differs to that Hindu Dogras. This is also due to change in locally produced crops.



Kashmiri Pundit Cuisine

Kashmiri Wazwan Cuisine

North Indian Cuisines

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The ultimate destination of foodies is the North Zone of India. There is absolutely no dearth of variety for a creative gourmet in this part of the country. The zone is fortunate to be the hub of some of the most exotic styles of cooking. Many of which are renowned all over the world and regarded as the most developed and refined of all culinary arts.
Most famous of all is the Mughal Cuisine. National, capital, Delhi is the place to enjoy this style in its best form. Known for their love for life and lavish styles, Mughals treated their gastronomic requirement with a lot of seriousness. They added a touch of royalty to the food and produced mouth watering taste with the generous use of spices, sausages, dry-fruits and butter. Roasted in tandoors, the meat dishes taste out of this world. Also important are kashmiri, thanks for their wazwans, the awadh cooking style,
Northern Indian cuisine has the following main schools of cooking:
Kashmiri
Punjabi
Rajasthani
Marwari
Gharwal and Pahari
UP
Awadh or Luchnawi

The main few states that stand out because of their wonderful additions to the world cuisines are
Jammu and Kashmir - Kashmiri Pundits Cuisine, Wazwan Cuisine
Punjab and Haryana - Punjabi Cuisine
Uttaranchal - Garhwal Cuisine and Kumouni Cuisine
Delhi - Mughalai Cuisine
Uttar Pradesh - Awadh or Lucknowi Cuisine
Rajasthan - Rajasthani and Marwari Cuisine

World Cuisines

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The world is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an anthropocentric or human worldview, as a place inhabited by human beings.
Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking; culinary art; "kitchen"; ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook") is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. Religious food laws can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine.

A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. For example, the American-Chinese dish chop suey clearly reflected the adaptation of Chinese cuisine to the ingredients available in North America.

World Cuisine is about the different cooking styles and different foods from the different parts of the world and the ones that are going to be highighted here. The various cuisines which are very important and have made an impact internationally are the ones we are going to be discussing about. A few cuisines can be

Indian Cuisine ---------------------------------- English Cuisine
Italian Cuisine -----------------------------------Lebanese Cuisine
Mexican Cuisine ---------------------------------Meditteranean Cuisine
Chinese Cuisine ----------------------------------African Cuisine
American Cuisine
French Cuisine
Japanese Cuisine
Korean Cuisine
This blog that I am writing is primarily to create awareness of the various cuisines of the vast expanse of the world and then to enlist the popular dishes and their recipes. You can always subscribe for posts.

Kerala Cuisine

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The Kerala is known as the "land of Spices". Even the Kerala cuisine is known for its spicy and hot foods. Traditionally, in Kerala food is served on a banana leaf. One has to take food with right hand. Almost every dish prepared in Kerala has coconut and spices to flavour the local cuisine giving it a sharp pungency that is heightened with the use of tamarind, while coconut gives it its richness, absorbing some of the tongue-teasing, pepper-hot flavours. Tender coconut water is a refreshing nutritious thirst quencher. The crunchy papadam, banana and jackfruit chips can give french-fries a run for their money any day.
Indian food is often flavored with the non-scalding spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, cloves garlic, cumin, coriander and turmeric. Spices are used in India to tone up the system the way wines aid the digestion of Western Cuisine.As for the Cuisine of Kerala, it is midly flavored, gently cooked and has a certain genteel delicacy on the stomach. An example is the rich biriyanis of the northern parts of Kerala. The Malabar Biriyanis.
Pulaos, pilaffs and biriyanis are meats spices and onions slowly steam cooked in boiled rice. Malabar biriyani was brought across the Indian Ocean by Arab Seafarers. It should be eaten hot with crispy, crunchy pappads.
Kerala does have its own well developed vegetarian cuisine. If you visit the State during post harvest Onam season lunch with thoran or kaalan or pachadi or olen.
Travancore Cuisine - Popular Dishes and recipes
Malabar Cuisine - Popular dishes and recipes

Karnataka Cuisine

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The cuisine of Karnataka comprises diverse vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. The varieties' influence can be found in the food habits of many regions and communities from the three neighbouring South Indian states, as well as the state of Maharashtra to its north. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Saaru, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath, Kesari Bath, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu.The famous Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine. Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South Karnataka. Coorg district is famous for spicy varieties of pork curries while coastal Karnataka boasts of many tasty sea food specialities. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Dharwa pedha, Chiroti are well known.
Although the ingredients differ from one region to another, a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf: Kosambari, Pickle, Palya, Gojju, Raita, Dessert (Yes, it is a tradition to start your meal with a dessert - Paaysa), Thovve, Chitranna, Rice and Ghee
After serving ghee to everyone, one may start the meal. This is done to ensure that everyone seated has been served all the dishes completely.
What follows next is a series of soup like dishes such as Saaru, Majjige Huli or Kootu which is eaten with hot rice. Gojju or raita is served next; two or three desserts are served; fried dishes such as Aambode or Bonda are served next. The meal ends with a serving of curd rice.
It is believed that every meal is a wholesome meal containing essential components of a healthy meal such as proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins.
There is some diversity in core food habits of North and South Karnataka. While northern-style dishes have joLa and rice as the primary cereals the south uses ragi and rice.
Mangalooru Cuisine - Popular dishes and recipes
Udupi Cuisine - Popular dishes and recipes

Andhra Pradesh Cuisine

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Andhra cuisine is largely vegetarian but the coastal areas have a large repertoire of seafood. Fish and prawns are curried in sesame and coconut oils, and flavored with freshly ground pepper. Andhra food is served with rice. Rice, sambar and other lentil preparations, and steamed vegetables delicately flavored with coconut, spices and fresh herbs. Snack or tiffin time is made of many preparations like onion pakodas; vadas or savory lentil doughnuts dunked in steaming hot sambar; and steamed rice muffin like dumplings called idlis. Savories are murku, roundels of rice flour paste deep fried; and appadams. Desserts include payasam, a pudding made with rice and milk and the popular Sheer Khurma - a Hyderabadi delicacy with dry fruits and dates.
Hyderabadi Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes
Telengana Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes

Tamil Nadu Cuisine

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The tamil cuisine is one of the oldest vegetarian culinary heritages in the world. Over a period of time, each geographical area where Tamils have lived has developed its own distinct variant of the common dishes in addition to dishes native to itself.
Chettinad cuisine hails from the deep southern region of Tamil Nadu. Chettinad cuisine is far cry from the bland cuisine of traditional Tamilian Brahmins—it is one of the spiciest, oiliest and most aromatic in India.The Chettinad region comprising of Karaikudi and adjoining areas is known for both traditional vegetarian dishes like appam, uthappam, paal paniyaram and non-vegetarian dishes made primarily using chicken.
Chettinad cuisine has gained popularity in non-Tamil speaking areas as well. Madurai and the other southern districts of Tamil Nadu are known for non-vegetarian food made of chevon, chicken and fish. Parota made with maida or all-purpose flour, and loosely similar to the north Indian wheat flour-based Paratha, is served at food outlets in Tamil Nadu, especially in districts like Virudhunagar, Madurai and the adjoining areas. Parota is not commonly prepared at home as it is a laborious and time-consuming process.
Although the Chettiars are well known for their delicious vegetarian preparations, their repertoire of food items is famous and includes all manner of fish and fowl and meats, as well as delicate noodle-like dishes and carefully preserved sun-dried legumes and berries that the Chettiar ladies make into curries. Oil and spices are liberally used in cooking and most dishes have generous amounts of peppercorn, cinnamon, bay leaves, cardamom, nutmeg, green and red chilies, etc.
Some of the popular dishes in Chettinad menu are varuval -- a dry dish fried with onions and spices (chicken, fish or vegetables sautéed), pepper chicken, poriyal -- a curry, and kuzambu which has the ingredients stewed in a gravy of coconut milk and spices.In the same range, one can include the numerous pickles, powders, specially roasted and ground spices, dry snacks, papads, appalam and vada. Numerous shops now sell pre-packed snacks like murukkus, small spirals of fried rice dough, chips and other edible ‘hand grenades’ like thattai, masala vada and so on.
The Tamil variation of Mughlai food can be savored in the biryani and paya. The latter is a kind of spiced trotter broth and is eaten with either parathas or appam.
Tamil Nadu is famous for its filter coffee as most Tamils have a subtle contempt for instant coffee. The making of filter coffee is almost a ritual, for the coffee beans have to be roasted and ground. Then the powder is put into a filter set and boiling hot water is added to prepare the decoction and allowed to set for about 15 minutes. The decoction is then added to milk with sugar to taste. The final drink is poured individually from one container to another in rapid succession to make the ideal frothy cup of filter coffee.
Chettinadu Cuisine - Popular Dishes and recipes
Kongu Cuisine - Popular Dishes and recipes

South Indian Cuisines

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South Indian cuisine is rice based. Rice is combined with lentils to make wonderful dosas, idlis, vadas and uttapams. These items are glorious and delicious besides being nourishing and digestible (due to the fermenting process). They are combined with sambhar (dal), rasam (tamarind dal), dry and curried vegetable and pachadi (yogurt). Their rice preparations are also masterpieces like biryani from Hyderabad, lemon rice and rice seasoned with coconut peanuts, tamarind, chilies, curry leaves, urad dal and fenugreek seeds.
South Indian chutneys are made of tamarind, coconut, peanuts, dal, fenugreek seeds, and cilantro. Meals are followed by coffee. South Indian dals and curries are more soupy than North Indian dals and curries. South Indian cuisine is also hotter. Coconut milk straight from the nut is a common beverage and sight in South India. Coffee is very popular in South India and Madras coffee is popular in South Indian restaurants throughout the world. The South Indian food is a brilliant blend of flavors, colors, seasoning, nutritional balance, fragrance, taste, and visual appeal.The southern region of the Indian Subcontinent has four states and these states have different regions in them, the states and their primary cusines are
Tamil Nadu - Chettinad, Kongu
Andhra Pradesh - Hyderabadi, Telengana

Karnataka - Mangalorean, Udupi

Kerala - Travancore, Malabar

The Indian Cuisine

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India is a country rich in tradition and culture. The country has diverse defining features in geography, culture and food. These features differ from region to region. Despite the difference in cultures based on regions there are certain underlining similarities in thier food. Their use of spices in food forms an integral part of food preparation and these spices form the foundation to enhance the flavours and aromas in the food prepared.
Althought the food in India reflects the varied demographics and ethnic deversities the primary division in thier cuisine would be North Indian, South Indian, East Indian and West Indian cuisines.
Within these primary divisions form region wise division like chettinad, konkan, mughalai, tandoor, etc., Now is when I have to mention that there is a lot of foreign influnce in the food prepared and consumed in many regions. This influence is primarily because of the nations that ruled the country.
Let's get into each of these regions and their cuisines in detail going forward. Primary Cuisines in India are
South Indian Cuisines
North Indian Cuisines
Western Indian Cuisines
Eastern Indian Cuisines

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Garam Masala

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Ingredients :

2 tbsp - Cumin seeds
2 tbsp - Coriander seeds
2 tbsp - Cardamom seeds
2 tbsp - Black peppercorns
1 no - Cinnamon, (3" stick)
1 tsp - Cloves
1 tsp - Nutmeg (Grated)
1/2 tsp - Saffron (optional)

Cooking Instructions :

- Dry roast the cumin, coriander, cardamom, peppercorns, cinnamon, and cloves in a heavy pan over medium-high heat.
- Roast the spices, stirring occasionally, until they turn several shades darker and give off a sweet smoky aroma, about 10 minutes.
- Grind the mixture to a powder using either a coffee grinder or a spice mill
- Stir in grated nutmeg and saffron
- Can be stored in a cool dry place for about 3 months. Make sure the container is airtight to retain the flavour
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Indian Cuisines
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Central Indian Cuisines
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West Indian Cuisines
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East Indian Cuisines
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Kashmiri Pandit Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Wazwan Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Punjabi Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Tandoori Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Garhwal Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Kumouni Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Mughalai Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Awadh Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Lucknowi Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Rajasthani Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes




Marwari Cuisine - Popular Dishes and Recipes

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